Historical kana usage:How to read


●ゐ and ,those are obsolete in Modern kana usage,are common in Historical kana usage.

 ゐ is to be read with , and is to be read with .

   ゐる→いる(居る)
   こゑ→こえ(声)  and so on.

Katakana of is , and that of is .

 

●を can be used not only as a particle but also in other kinds of words.

 を is to be read with .

   をばさん→おばさん  and so on.

 

●ぢ and are used more often.

 ぢ is to be read with , and is to be read with .

   おぢいさん→おじいさん
   まづ→まず(先ず)  and so on.

 

Some kana are read with different sounds instead of their original sounds under a certain condition. These phenomena are called Tenko(Change of call).

 は,,,,located in any place other than the top of a word are to be read with ,,,,.

   かは→かわ(川)
   会ひます→会います
   使ふ→使う
   まへ→まえ(前)
   おほい→おおい(多い)  and so on.

 

 Such sequences of kana as あう,あふ,かう,かふ,さう,さふ,・・・ are to be read in the same way as おう,こう,そう,・・・.

   あふぎ→おうぎ(扇)
   行かう→行こう
   さうです→そうです
   ありがたう→ありがとう
   たふとい→とうとい(尊い)
   死なう→死のう
   まうす→もうす(申す)
   だらう→だろう
   散らう→散ろう  and so on.

   かうかう→高校
   ざふきん→雑巾  and so on.

 

All the verbs such as 会ふ,買ふ,慕ふ,嫌ふ are exceptions.They are read with あう,かう,したう,きらう in Modern Standard Japanese.
But in case of
Ancient writings,they are generally read in the same way as おう,こう,しとう,きろう according to the principle.

 

 Such as きう,きふ,しう,しふ,ちう,ちふ,・・・ are to be read with きゅう,しゅう,ちゅう,・・・.

   きうり→きゅうり
   美しう→美しゅう  and so on.

   えいきう→永久
   じふじ→十時
  and so on.

 

 Such as けう,けふ,せう,せふ,てう,てふ,・・・ are to be read in the same way as きょう,しょう,ちょう,・・・.

   けふ→きょう(今日)
   でせう→でしょう  and so on.

   けうしつ→教室
   てふ→蝶
  and so on.

 

There are some other kinds of Tenko in Sound reading of kanji, in addittion.

 Such as きやう,しやう,ちやう,・・・ are to be read in the same way as きょう,しょう,ちょう,・・・.

   きやうだい→兄弟
   たいしやう→大将
   ちやうちやう→町長  and so on.

 

 くわ,ぐわ are to be read with ,.

   くわし→菓子
   マングワ→漫画
   ゆくわい→愉快  and so on.

 

Small letters are generally not used in Historical kana usage.

 Large ,,,of Sokuon and Yôon are read in the same way as small ,,,.

   あつた→あった
   ちやんと→ちゃんと  and so on.

 

In case of Ancient writings,the next rule is added.

 む of an auxiliary verb is to be read with .

   逢はむ→あわん
   ~せむ→~せん
   ありけむ→ありけん
   取りてむ→とりてん
   給ひなむ→たまいなん
   吹かむとす→ふかんとす
   まかりなむずる→まかりなんずる  and so on.


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